Glossary

COP21 – The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015. It was the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

fracking – See hydraulic fracturing.

conventional drilling – Drilling into the ground in order to extract oil and gas.  Most oil and gas comes up under it’s own pressure, or fluid can be pumped into wells to move it along.

divestment – is the opposite of investment.  With regard to climate change, divestment means getting rid investments that are part of the problem, e.g. funds in stocks, shares and pensions invested in oil and gas companies etc.

hydraulic fracturing – An unconventional drilling technique using explosives and high pressure fluid to open fissures in shale beds, in order to extract methane gas etc.

unconventional drilling – Methods such as fracking (hydraulic fracturing) that use more complex methods to get oil and gas out of the ground.  Normally more expensive and high risk, so often used only when conventional resources have been depleted or are unavailable.